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Insufficient text contrast (WCAG Level AA Issue)

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What does this accessibility issue mean?

Accessibility issue summary:  Insufficient text contrast ratio

Adequate text contrast is crucial for users with visual impairments, low vision, or color blindness, as well as for those who may be accessing the content in suboptimal viewing conditions. WCAG emphasizes the principle of perceivability, and ensuring sufficient contrast between text and its background is integral to making content more readable and understandable.

When text contrast is insufficient, it can result in poor legibility, making it difficult for users to discern and comprehend the text content. This issue is particularly pronounced for users with visual disabilities who may rely on screen readers or magnification tools. Inadequate contrast can lead to eye strain and fatigue, hindering overall user experience.

To address this, WCAG provides specific guidelines regarding text contrast ratios. These guidelines ensure that text is presented in a way that is visually distinguishable from its background. Meeting these contrast requirements enhances the readability of text for all users and is a fundamental aspect of creating an inclusive and accessible web environment.  

The visual presentation of text and images of text should have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 (except in certain situations, for example, with Large-scale text, which should have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1). 

Issue details

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Example HTML violation: Insufficient text contrast (WCAG Level AA Issue)

<style> body { background-color: #ffffff; } h1 { color: #f0f0f0; } </style>

 <h1>Insufficient Text Contrast</h1>

The above HTML violates the color-contrast accessibility rule because it has a low contrast between the text color and the background color. This is problematic for visually impaired users as color contrast is crucial for accessibility.

It is important to ensure a good contrast between the foreground (text color) and background color to improve readability and usability for all users.


How to fix "Insufficient text contrast (WCAG Level AA Issue)" issue

<style> body { background-color: #ffffff; } h1 { color: #000000; } </style>

 <h1>Sufficient Text Contrast</h1>

What was corrected?

  1. The color property of h1 tag was changed from #f0f0f0 (a very light shade of gray) to #000000 (black). This change was done to ensure a high contrast against the white (#ffffff) background.

  2. Corrected the language attribute in the html tag to be lang="en" instead of lang="" en""="", which was an incorrect format.

**Why this correction is important?

**According to WCAG 2.1 guidelines, text or images of text must have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1 except for large text, incidental text or logos, which can go lower to 3:1.

High contrast between text and background color makes the text easier to read for people with moderate visual impairments.

To ensure color contrast is sufficient, you can use tools such as the Color Contrast Analyzer or directly use the browser's developer tools.

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